Glossary of Terms

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  • a

  • Auditory Processing Disorder
    What is it? An auditory processing disorder interferes with an individual's ability to analyze or make sense of information taken in through the ears. This is different from problems involving hearing per se, such as deafness or being hard of hearing. Difficulties with auditory(...) - Read More

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
    What is autism spectrum disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is described as a “developmental disorder” because symptoms generally appear in the first two years of(...) - Read More

  • d

  • Differentiated Instruction
    Differentiated instruction and assessment (also known as differentiated learning or, in education, simply, differentiation) is a framework or philosophy for effective teaching that involves providing different students with different avenues to learning (often in the same classroom) in(...) - Read More

  • Dyscalculia
    Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability in math. Kids with dyscalculia may have difficulty understanding number-related concepts or using symbols or functions needed for success in mathematics. Dyscalculia is a common learning issue that impacts kids ability to do math. It doesn’t(...) - Read More

  • Dysgraphia
    Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects a person’s handwriting ability and fine motor skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at(...) - Read More

  • Dyslexia
    Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words (decoding). Also called reading disability, dyslexia affects areas of the brain that process language. People with dyslexia have normal(...) - Read More

  • e

  • Emotional Disturbance
    Definition Students with emotional disorders are a very heterogeneous group with a wide range of issues that are unique to each individual. However, there are some key characteristics that are used to define this disability category, mostly relating to issues of personal identity and (...) - Read More

  • Executive Functions
    Executive function is a set of key mental skills that act as a command center in the brain. These skills help kids do things like plan, manage time, control emotions, work with information and get tasks done. They’re also important for staying focused and solving problems. So having(...) - Read More

  • f

  • Fine Motor Skills
    What Are Fine Motor Skills? We use fine motor skills to make small movements. These movements come so naturally to most people that we usually don’t think about them. Fine motor skills are complex, however. They involve the coordinated efforts of the brain and muscles, and they’re built(...) - Read More

  • g

  • Gross Motor Skills
    What Are Gross Motor Skills? We use gross motor skills to do everyday things that involve our large muscles, from exercising to raking leaves. Most people use these skills easily and automatically. But gross motor skills are more complex than you might think. These skills involve the(...) - Read More

  • h

  • Hypernasality
    What Is Hypernasal Speech? Hypernasality is a speech resonance disorder that occurs when there is too much air leakage through the nose during speech. This results in a hollow sound to speech and sometimes audible air escape through the nose during speech. This leakage can affect the(...) - Read More

  • Hyponasality
    What is Hyponasality? Hyponasality [HAHY-poh-ney-ZAL-i-tee] is a speech disorder in children that occurs when there is not enough air coming from the nose and mouth. This causes a disruption in a child’s voice. Normal speech occurs when the lungs, lips, tongue, and the(...) - Read More

  • i

  • Instructional Scaffolding
    Instructional scaffolding is a learning process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals (Sawyer,(...) - Read More

  • k

  • Kinesthetic Learning
    Kinesthetic Learning (also known as Tactile Learning) is a learning style in which learning takes place by the student carrying out a physical activity. [jref]url=|title= Kinesthetic learning|author=From Wikipedia [/jref] Helping(...) - Read More

  • l

  • Learning Disabilities
    Learning disabilities, or learning disorders, are an umbrella term for a wide variety of learning problems. A learning disability is not a problem with intelligence or motivation. Kids with learning disabilities aren’t lazy or dumb. In fact, most are just as smart as everyone else. Their(...) - Read More

  • m

  • Metacognition
    Higher-order thinking that enables understanding, analysis, and control of one’s cognitive processes, especially when engaged in learning. [jref]url=|title= Metacognition|[/jref] - Read More

  • p

  • Phonemic Awareness
    What is Phonemic Awareness? First of all, Phonemic awareness is not phonics. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds-phonemes--in spoken words. Before children learn to read print, they need to become more aware of how the sounds in words(...) - Read More

  • s

  • Scaffolded Instruction
    Instructional scaffolding is a learning process designed to promote a deeper level of learning. Scaffolding is the support given during the learning process which is tailored to the needs of the student with the intention of helping the student achieve his/her learning goals (Sawyer,(...) - Read More

  • Sensory Processing Disorder
    Sensory processing issues are difficulties with organizing and responding to information that comes in through the senses. Kids with these issues may be oversensitive to sensory input, undersensitive, or both. What are sensory processing issues? The term refers to difficulties(...) - Read More

  • t

  • Twice Exceptional
    Some students with learning and attention issues have outstanding skills in certain academic areas. These kids are often called “twice-exceptional” (or 2E) learners. They’re exceptional in two ways. They’re gifted, and they have learning(...) - Read More

  • v

  • Visual Perceptual Skills
    “Visual Perceptual skills involve the ability to organize and interpret the information that is seen and give it meaning.” Our eyes send large amounts of information to our brains to process every single second.  If our eyes are sending us the proper information in a way that makes sense,(...) - Read More

  • Visual Processing Disorder
    What is it? A visual processing, or perceptual, disorder refers to a hindered ability to make sense of information taken in through the eyes. This is different from problems involving sight or sharpness of vision. Difficulties with visual processing affect how visual information is (...) - Read More

  • Visual-Motor Integration
    Visual motor integration fits in seamlessly with the overarching theme of this blog, which is that vision affects and is affected by more than just the eyes. It bears repeating that your eyes, brain, and body exist not as isolated parts, but interconnected functions of a whole you. Our(...) - Read More

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